Dallas is the ninth most-populous city in the United States  and third in Texas after the cities of Houston and San Antonio.
Its metropolitan area encompasses one-quarter of the population of Texas, and is the largest in the Southern U. In July , the population estimate of the city of Dallas was 1,,, an increase of , since the United States Census. There were , households at the estimates,  up from 's , households, out of which In , The average household size was 2.
At the census, the city's age distribution of the population showed The median age was About Dallas's population was historically predominantly white non-Hispanic whites made up Today the non-Hispanic white population has declined to less than one-third of the city's population. According to the census, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders make up a total of residents according to 's estimates. Dallas is a major destination for Mexican immigrants. The southwestern portion of the city, particularly Oak Cliff is chiefly inhabited by Hispanic and Latin American residents.
The southeastern portion of the city Pleasant Grove is chiefly inhabited by African American and Hispanic or Latino residents, while the southern portion of the city is predominantly black. The west and east sides of the city are predominantly Hispanic or Latino; Garland also has a large Spanish speaking population. North Dallas has many enclaves of predominantly white, black and especially Hispanic or Latino residents. The Dallas—Fort-Worth metro has an estimated 70, Russian-speakers as of November 6, mostly immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc.
The Russian-speaking population of Dallas has continued to grow in the sector of "American husbands-Russian wives". In addition, Dallas and its suburbs are home to a large number of Asian Americans  including those of Indian , Vietnamese , Chinese, Korean , Filipino , Japanese , and other heritage. The Plano-Richardson area in particular has an estimated 30, Iranian-Americans.
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There are also a significant number of people from the Horn of Africa , immigrants from Ethiopia , Eritrea and Somalia. With so many immigrant groups, there are often multilingual signs in the linguistic landscape. According to U. Census American Community Survey data released in December , 23 percent of Dallas County residents were foreign-born, while 16 percent of Tarrant County residents were foreign-born. Recognized for having one of the largest lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT populations in the nation, the metroplex is widely noted for being home to a thriving and diverse LGBT community.
Methodist , Baptist , and Presbyterian churches are prominent in many neighborhoods and anchor two of the city's major private universities Southern Methodist University and Dallas Baptist University. Dallas is also home to two evangelical seminaries: the Dallas Theological Seminary and Criswell College. The Christian creationist apologetics group Institute for Creation Research is headquartered in Dallas.
Dallas is called "Prison Ministry Capital of the World" by the prison ministry community. The Catholic Church is also a significant organization in the Dallas area and operates the University of Dallas , a liberal-arts university in the Dallas suburb of Irving. The Cathedral Santuario de la Virgen de Guadalupe in the Arts District is home to the second-largest Catholic church membership in the United States and overseas,  consisting over 70 parishes in the Dallas Diocese. Dallas is also home to numerous Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches. The city is also home to a sizable Latter-day Saint community.
In addition, there are several Unitarian Universalist congregations, including First Unitarian Church of Dallas, founded in Dallas's Jewish population of approximately 45, is the largest of any city in Texas. Furthermore, a large Muslim community exists in the north and northeastern portions of Dallas, as well as in the northern Dallas suburbs. There is also a Sunni Islamic Center in Irving.
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Dallas also has a large Buddhist community. A sizable Sikh community resides in Dallas and its surrounding suburbs.
There are at least three Sikh Gurudwaras in this metropolitan area. The Winter Solstice Celebration is held in the metroplex for "spiritual but not religious" people although some of its participants are also neo-pagans and New Agers. According to the FBI, a city to city comparison of crime rates can be misleading, because recording practices vary from city to city, citizens report different percentages of crimes from one city to the next, and the actual number of people physically present in a city is unknown.
However, Houston In its beginnings, Dallas relied on farming, neighboring Fort Worth 's Stockyards , and its prime location on Native American trade routes to sustain itself. Dallas' key to growth came in with the construction of multiple rail lines through the city.
As Dallas grew and technology developed, cotton became its boon and by , Dallas was the largest inland cotton market in the world, becoming a leader in cotton gin machinery manufacturing. By the early s, Dallas was a hub for economic activity all over the Southern United States and was selected in as the seat of the Eleventh Federal Reserve District. In the s, petroleum was discovered east of Dallas, near Kilgore.
Dallas' proximity to the discovery put it immediately at the center of the nation's petroleum market. Petroleum discoveries in the Permian Basin , the Panhandle , the Gulf Coast , and Oklahoma in the following years further solidified Dallas' position as the hub of the market. The end of World War II left Dallas seeded with a nexus of communications, engineering, and production talent by companies such as Collins Radio Corporation.
Decades later, the telecommunications and information revolutions still drive a large portion of the local economy. The city is sometimes referred to as the heart of " Silicon Prairie " because of a high concentration of telecommunications companies in the region, the epicenter of which lies along the Telecom Corridor in Richardson , a northern suburb of Dallas. Texas Instruments, a major manufacturer, employs 10, people at its corporate headquarters and chip plants in Dallas.
In the s Dallas was a real estate hotbed, with the increasing metropolitan population bringing with it a demand for new housing and office space. Several of Downtown Dallas ' largest buildings are the fruit of this boom, but over-speculation, the savings and loan crisis and an oil bust brought the 80's building boom to an end for Dallas as well as its sister city Houston. Between the late s and the early s, central Dallas went through a slow period of growth. However, since the early s the central core of Dallas has been enjoying steady and significant growth encompassing both repurposing of older commercial buildings in Downtown Dallas into residential and hotel uses, as well as the construction of new office and residential towers.
The residential real estate market in the Dallas—Fort Worth metroplex has not only been resilient but has once again returned to a boom status. Dallas and the greater metro area have been leading the nation in apartment construction and net leasing, with rents reaching all-time highs. Single family home sales, whether pre-owned or new construction, along with home price appreciation, were leading the nation since A sudden drop in the price of oil, starting in mid and accelerating throughout , has not significantly affected Dallas and its greater metro area due to the highly diversified nature of its economy.
Dallas, and the DFW metro, continue to see strong demand for housing, apartment and office leasing, shopping center space, warehouse and industrial space with overall job growth remaining very robust.
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Oil-dependent cities and regions have felt significant effects from the downturn, but Dallas's growth has continued unabated, strengthening in Significant national headquarters relocations to the area as exemplified by Toyota's decision to leave California and establish its new North American headquarters in the Dallas area coupled with significant expansions of regional offices for a variety of corporations and along with company relocations to Downtown Dallas helped drive the boom in the Dallas economy.
The Dallas—Fort Worth area has one of the largest concentrations of corporate headquarters for publicly traded companies in the United States. Fortune Magazine 's annual list of the Fortune in America indicates the city of Dallas has 9 Fortune companies,  and the DFW region as a whole has 22,  reflecting the continued strong growth in the metro economy and up from 20 the year before. In October , Jacobs Engineering, one of the world's largest engineering companies, relocated from Pasadena, California to Downtown Dallas. Irving is home to six Fortune companies of its own, including ExxonMobil , the largest oil company in the world  and the fourth largest company in the nation by revenue for ,  Fluor engineering , Kimberly-Clark , Celanese , Michaels Companies, and Vistra Energy.
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Horton , the largest homebuilder in America. Cheese's , Zale Corporation , and Fossil, Inc.
Susan G. Komen for the Cure , the world's largest breast cancer organization  was founded and is headquartered in Dallas. In addition to its large number of businesses, Dallas has more shopping centers per capita than any other city in the United States and is also home to the second shopping center ever built in the United States, Highland Park Village , which opened in Both malls feature high-end stores and are major tourist draws for the region. According to Forbes magazine's annual list of "The Richest People in America" published September 21, , the city is home to 17 billionaires, up from 14 in In with 14 billionaires the city placed sixth worldwide among cities with the most billionaires.
In , Forbes also ranked Dallas No. The Arts District in the northern section of Downtown is home to several arts venues and is the largest contiguous arts district in the United States. Designed by Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate Thom Mayne and his firm Morphosis Architects, the ,square-foot facility has six floors and stands about 14 stories high. In , it joined up with Madrid's Prado Museum for a three-year partnership.
These works, as well as non-Spanish highlights like sculptures by Rodin and Moore, have been so successful of a collaboration that the Prado and Meadows have agreed upon an extension of the partnership.
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Kennedy in , has served since the s as a county government office building, except for its sixth and seventh floors, which house the Sixth Floor Museum. Washington High School for the Performing and Visual Arts , a magnet school that was recently expanded. Deep Ellum , immediately east of Downtown, originally became popular during the s and s as the prime jazz and blues hot spot in the South. Today, Deep Ellum is home to hundreds of artists who live in lofts and operate in studios throughout the district alongside bars, pubs, and concert venues.
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One major example, the Good-Latimer tunnel, was torn down in late to accommodate the construction of a light rail line through the site. Like Deep Ellum before it, the Cedars neighborhood to the south of Downtown has also seen a growing population of studio artists and an expanding roster of entertainment venues. The area's art scene began to grow in the early s with the opening of Southside on Lamar , an old Sears Roebuck and Company warehouse converted into lofts, studios, and retail.
Within this building, Southside on Lamar hosts the Janette Kennedy Gallery with rotating gallery exhibitions featuring many local, national, and international artists. Walls of buildings along alleyways and streets are painted with murals, and the surrounding streets contain many eclectic restaurants and shops.
Dallas has an Office of Cultural Affairs as a department of the city government. The office is responsible for six cultural centers throughout the city, funding for local artists and theaters, initiating public art projects, and running the city-owned classical radio station WRR. The city is served by the Dallas Public Library system. Her fundraising efforts led to a grant from philanthropist and steel baron Andrew Carnegie , which allowed the library system to build its first branch in The most notable event held in Dallas is the State Fair of Texas , which has been held annually at Fair Park since After the discontinuance of the "Big D NYE" festivities a few years later, a new end-of-year event was started downtown, with a big fireworks show put on at Reunion Tower , which has since aired on KXAS and other TV stations around the state and region.
Also, several Omni hotels in the Dallas area host large events to welcome in the new year, including murder mystery parties, rave-inspired events, and other events. Dallas is known for its barbecue , authentic Mexican , and Tex-Mex cuisine.
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