A meta-analysis 15 of 15 randomized controlled trials examined the effects of alcohol on blood pressure in heavy drinkers.
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A reduction of alcohol to moderate intakes reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 3. A meta-analysis 16 of 24 randomized placebo-controlled trials was done to estimate the effect of fiber supplementation on blood pressure.
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Fiber supplementation average dose An earlier meta-analysis 17 of 12 randomized controlled trials published before found a similar effect: an average reduction in blood pressure of 1. Clinical trials have reported a beneficial effect of potassium supplementation on blood pressure.
A meta-analysis 18 found that high dietary potassium intake may help prevent and control hypertension. Most population studies have found no significant relationship between calcium and the prevalence of hypertension. However, a meta-analysis 19 showed a small reduction in blood pressure with the use of calcium supplements.
In most clinical studies, magnesium supplementation has been ineffective in altering blood pressure, possibly because of the confounding effects of antihypertensive medications and the short duration of the studies. Nonetheless, a DASH-type diet that includes fruits and vegetables five to nine servings per day and low-fat dairy products two to four servings per day will be rich in potassium, magnesium, and calcium and may contribute to a reduction in blood pressure.
More recently, studies have shown that supplementation with large doses of fish oil median dose of 5. The National High Blood Pressure Education Program cautions that some widely publicized approaches have less proven or uncertain efficacy. In addition, they caution that the ability of herbal and botanical supplements to safely lower blood pressure is unproven, and these products can interact adversely with medications. Lifestyle modifications shown to be beneficial for hypertension management and prevention are summarized in Table 3.
Lifestyle Modifications for Hypertension Management and Prevention 3 , 4. Most encouraging are the trials implementing multiple lifestyle modifications and showing that combining lifestyle interventions can lower blood pressure more effectively than single approaches. Two trials 23 , 24 evaluated the efficacy of implementing simultaneously multiple lifestyle modifications: sodium reduction, weight loss, the DASH diet, and regular physical activity. The Diet, Exercise, and Weight Loss Intervention Trial 23 randomized hypertensive participants to a lifestyle change or control group.
At the end of the 9-week intervention, net reductions in hour ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 9. In the multiple behavioral interventions plus DASH group, the mean net reduction in systolic blood pressure was Both studies concluded that in people with hypertension, a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program can substantially lower blood pressure and reduce cardiovascular disease risk.
Research on low-protein diets delaying the progression of renal disease has been controversial. The role of MNT in glucose and blood pressure control is clearly the first priority, but there is some evidence that once albuminuria is present, there may be a beneficial effect on renal function with a reduction of protein to 0. However, despite these flaws, in virtually all reports in subjects with diabetes, renal function improves with a low-protein diet.
A reduction of protein intake in subjects with diabetes and microalbuminuria has been attempted in four studies. Even with these small reductions in protein intake, the glomerular filtration rates improved significantly in all four studies, and the albumin excretion rates were reduced significantly in three. In a dose-response analysis, a 0. Five studies have been done in subjects with diabetes and macroalbuminuria.
Although beneficial effects from the protein restriction were reported, one study 27 raised concern that too low a protein intake may cause malnutrition. Patients in the low-protein group reported lower energy intakes and a significant decrease in body weight compared to the control group. Therefore, although the majority of the studies report that a reduction of protein to 0.
Restricting protein intake to 0. Of concern is the reported malnourishment with the reduced energy intake accompanying the restricted protein intake.
Furthermore, there is no strong evidence supporting the benefit of lowering protein to this extent. How do dietitians and educators assist people with diabetes in putting into action the above recommendations for treating hypertension and, when needed, albuminuria? The number of servings may increase or decrease depending on an individual's energy needs. Individuals also need to heed advice to reduce sodium intake. Fortunately, carbohydrate counting and the DASH diet mesh well. Many of the serving sizes listed in Table 4 are also the equivalent of one carbohydrate serving.
Table 5 is a sample day's menu incorporating the DASH diet and carbohydrate counting. It is also much less than the 3,—5, mg of daily sodium that Americans typically average each day, so it is a big step in the right direction of cutting back on sodium. Even getting down to 2,—3, mg of sodium daily, along with eating more fruits and vegetables and low-fat dairy foods, would have a significant blood pressure—lowering effect based on the DASH research data.
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Fortunately, eating a lot of produce and dairy foods automatically lowers sodium intake. Counseling patients with diabetes and renal disease requires a dietitian familiar with MNT for both diabetes and renal disease. Table 6 30 is an example of a diabetes menu incorporating 40 g of protein, 2, mg of sodium, low phosphorus, and carbohydrate counting.
All but the last also help prevent high blood pressure.
Fifteen good foods for high blood pressure
If micro- or macroalbuminuria is present, a modest reduction in protein may slow progression of nephropathy. Marion J. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address. Skip to main content. Diabetes Spectrum Jan; 19 1 : 32 - Previous Next. Abstract In Brief Modest weight reduction, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension eating plan, sodium reduction, physical activity, and moderation in alcohol intake are effective in lowering blood pressure and preventing hypertension.
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View this table: View inline View popup Download powerpoint. Table 2. Tips for Reducing Salt Sodium in the Diet.
Table 3. Table 4. Table 5. Table 6.
Footnotes Marion J. American Diabetes Association. J Clin Hypertens 6 : —, OpenUrl CrossRef. Diabetes Care 27 Suppl. JAMA : —, Clin Exp Hypertens 26 : —, J Hypertens 7 Suppl.
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The Trials of Hypertension Collaborative Research Group : Effects of weight loss and sodium reduction intervention on blood pressure and hypertension incidence in overweight people with high-normal blood pressure. Arch Intern Med : —, N Engl J Med : —, N Eng J Med : 3 —10, He FJ , MacGregor GA: Effect of modest salt reduction on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized trials: implications for public health.
J Hum Hypertens 16 : —, Tuck M , Corry D, Trujillo A: Salt-sensitivity blood pressure and exaggerated vascular reactivity in the hypertension of diabetes mellitus. Understanding which foods can help to manage hypertension, reducing your salt consumption and keeping to a healthy weight are all important. We will go into this in more detail further down the page. Although smoking doesn't directly cause hypertension, it puts you at a greater risk of heart attack and stroke.
This means if you smoke and have high blood pressure, you will be at a significantly higher risk. Taking enough exercise will help to keep your blood vessels and heart in good condition, lowering your chances of high blood pressure. On top of this, regular exercise can help you lose any excess weight - another risk factor for hypertension.
Adults are recommended to get minutes of exercise every week. This exercise should make you feel warm and slightly out of breath. Feeling stressed all the time known as chronic stress can raise your blood pressure significantly. Try to establish what it is in your life that is causing your stress and think of ways you could look to reduce it.
Understand your stress triggers and learn relaxation techniques to help you cope when they occur. Ensure you make time every day to relax - this could be five minutes of meditation, taking the dog for a walk or even enjoying a long bath. As aforementioned, your doctor will inform you if you need to take medication to help manage your blood pressure.
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